Genital Tract Infections in Women, Pregnancy and Neonates


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Marai W.
        Lower genital tract infections among pregnant women: a review.
        East Afr Med J. 2001; 78: 581-585
        • Zheng Y.
        • Yu Q.
        • Lin Y.
        • et al.
        Global burden and trends of sexually transmitted infections from 1990 to 2019: an observational trend study.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;
        • Msuya S.E.
        • Uriyo J.
        • Hussain A.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women with known HIV status in northern Tanzania.
        Reprod Health. 2009; 6: 4
        • Cohen M.S.
        • Council O.D.
        • Chen J.S.
        Sexually transmitted infections and HIV in the era of antiretroviral treatment and prevention: the biologic basis for epidemiologic synergy.
        J Int AIDS Soc. 2019; 22: e25355
        • Control UCfD
        Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Report 2018.
        Date: 2019
        Date accessed: July 1, 2022
        • Rowley J.
        • Vander Hoorn S.
        • Korenromp E.
        • et al.
        Chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and syphilis: global prevalence and incidence estimates, 2016.
        Bull World Health Organ. 2019; 97: 548-562p
        • Korenromp E.L.
        • Rowley J.
        • Alonso M.
        • et al.
        Global burden of maternal and congenital syphilis and associated adverse birth outcomes-Estimates for 2016 and progress since 2012.
        PLoS One. 2019; 14: e0211720
        • Oloya S.
        • Lyczkowski D.
        • Orikiriza P.
        • et al.
        Prevalence, associated factors and clinical features of congenital syphilis among newborns in Mbarara hospital, Uganda.
        BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020; 20: 1-7
        • Arnold S.R.
        • Ford-Jones E.L.
        Congenital syphilis: a guide to diagnosis and management.
        Paediatrics Child Health. 2000; 5: 463-469
        • Cooper J.M.
        • Sánchez P.J.
        Congenital syphilis.
        Semin Perinatol. 2018; 42: 176-184
        • Azimi P.
        Syphilis (Treponema pallidum).
        in: Kliegman R.M. Behrman R.E. Hal B.J. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 18th edition. Saunders Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, PA2007: 1263-1269
        • Organization WH
        Global health sector strategy on Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2016-2021.
        • Harfouche M.
        • Abu-Hijleh F.M.
        • James C.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 2 in sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic review, meta-analyses, and meta-regressions.
        EClinicalMedicine. 2021; 35: 100876
        • Harfouche M.
        • Chemaitelly H.
        • Abu-Raddad L.J.
        Herpes simplex virus type 1 epidemiology in Africa: systematic review, meta-analyses, and meta-regressions.
        J Infect. 2019; 79: 289-299
        • Looker K.J.
        • Magaret A.S.
        • May M.T.
        • et al.
        First estimates of the global and regional incidence of neonatal herpes infection.
        Lancet Glob Health. 2017; 5: e300-e309
        • Pinninti S.G.
        • Kimberlin D.W.
        Preventing herpes simplex virus in the newborn.
        Clin Perinatol. 2014; 41: 945-955
      1. Management of Genital Herpes in Pregnancy: ACOG practice bulletinacog practice bulletin, number 220.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2020; 135: e193-e202
        • Brown Z.A.
        • Wald A.
        • Morrow R.A.
        • et al.
        Effect of serologic status and cesarean delivery on transmission rates of herpes simplex virus from mother to infant.
        JAMA. 2003; 289: 203-209
        • Fernandes N.D.
        • Arya K.
        • Ward R.
        Congenital Herpes Simplex. StatPearls [Internet].
        StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island (FL)2022: 1360-1365
        • Stanberry L.R.
        Herpes simplex virus.
        in: Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 18th edition. Saunders Elsevier Inc, 2007
        • Kiguen A.X.
        • Marramá M.
        • Ruiz S.
        • et al.
        Prevalence, risk factors and molecular characterization of Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women from Córdoba, Argentina: a prospective study.
        PLoS One. 2019; 14: e0217245
        • Graham S.
        • Smith L.W.
        • Fairley C.K.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomonas in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Sex Health. 2016; 13: 99-113
        • Morré S.A.
        • Rozendaal L.
        • van Valkengoed I.G.
        • et al.
        Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in men and women with a symptomatic or asymptomatic infection: an association with clinical manifestations?.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2000; 38: 2292-2296
        • La Scolea JR., L.J.
        • Paroski J.S.
        • Burzynski L.
        • et al.
        Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infants delivered by cesarean section.
        Clin Pediatr. 1984; 23: 118-120
        • Adachi K.
        • Nielsen-Saines K.
        • Klausner J.D.
        Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnancy: the global challenge of preventing adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.
        Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016: 1-21
        • Ahmadi A.
        • Ramazanzadeh R.
        • Sayehmiri K.
        • et al.
        Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infections with preterm delivery; a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018; 18: 240
        • Olson-Chen C.
        • Balaram K.
        • Hackney D.N.
        Chlamydia trachomatis and adverse pregnancy outcomes: meta-analysis of patients with and without infection.
        Matern Child Health J. 2018; 22: 812-821
        • Reekie J.
        • Roberts C.
        • Preen D.
        • et al.
        Chlamydia trachomatis and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth, babies who are born small for gestational age, and stillbirth: a population-based cohort study.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2018;
        • Chirenje Z.M.
        • Dhibi N.
        • Handsfield H.H.
        • et al.
        The etiology of vaginal discharge syndrome in zimbabwe: results from the zimbabwe STI etiology study.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2018; 45: 422-428
        • Mbah C.E.
        • Jasani A.
        • Aaron K.J.
        • et al.
        Association between chlamydia trachomatis, neisseria gonorrhea, mycoplasma genitalium, and trichomonas vaginalis and secondary infertility in cameroon: a case-control study.
        PLoS One. 2022; 17: e0263186
        • Laga M.
        • Nzanze H.
        • Brunham R.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of ophthalmia neonatorum in Kenya.
        Lancet. 1986; 328: 1145-1149
        • Pourabbas B.
        • Rezaei Z.
        • Mardaneh J.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among pregnant women and eye colonization of their neonates at birth time, Shiraz, Southern Iran.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2018; 18: 1-4
        • Darville T.
        Pelvic inflammatory disease due to neisseria gonorrhoeae and chlamydia trachomatis: immune evasion mechanisms and pathogenic disease pathways.
        J Infect Dis. 2021; 224: S39-S46
        • Tsevat D.G.
        • Wiesenfeld H.C.
        • Parks C.
        • et al.
        Sexually transmitted diseases and infertility.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017; 216: 1-9
        • Adachi K.
        • Klausner J.D.
        • Xu J.
        • et al.
        Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in HIV-infected Pregnant Women and Adverse Infant Outcomes.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016; 35: 894-900
        • Bell T.A.
        • Grayston J.T.
        • Krohn M.A.
        • et al.
        Randomized trial of silver nitrate, erythromycin, and no eye prophylaxis for the prevention of conjunctivitis among newborns not at risk for gonococcal ophthalmitis. Eye Prophylaxis Study Group.
        Pediatrics. 1993; 92: 755-760
        • Nyemba D.C.
        • Haddison E.C.
        • Wang C.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of curable STIs and bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Sex Transm Infect. 2021;
        • Sutton M.
        • Sternberg M.
        • Koumans E.H.
        • et al.
        The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among reproductive-age women in the United States, 2001-2004.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 45: 1319-1326
        • Kamal A.M.
        • Ahmed A.K.
        • Mowafy N.M.E.-S.
        • et al.
        Incidence of antenatal trichomoniasis and evaluation of its role as a cause of preterm birth in pregnant women referring to Minia University Hospital, EGYPT.
        Iranian J Parasitol. 2018; 13: 58
        • Carter J.E.
        • Whithaus K.C.
        Neonatal respiratory tract involvement by Trichomonas vaginalis: a case report and review of the literature.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008; 78: 17-19
        • Bruins M.J.
        • van Straaten I.L.
        • Ruijs G.J.
        Respiratory disease and Trichomonas vaginalis in premature newborn twins.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013; 32: 1029-1030
        • Peebles K.
        • Velloza J.
        • Balkus J.E.
        • et al.
        High global burden and costs of bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2019; 46: 304-311
        • Kenyon C.
        • Colebunders R.
        • Crucitti T.
        The global epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 209: 505-523
        • Goto A.
        • Nguyen Q.V.
        • Pham N.M.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of and factors associated with reproductive tract infections among pregnant women in ten communes in Nghe An Province, Vietnam.
        J Epidemiol. 2005; 15: 163-172
        • Muzny C.A.
        • Schwebke J.R.
        Pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis: discussion of current hypotheses.
        J Infect Dis. 2016; 214: S1-S5
        • Klebanoff M.A.
        • Schwebke J.R.
        • Zhang J.
        • et al.
        Vulvovaginal symptoms in women with bacterial vaginosis.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 104: 267-272
        • Laxmi U.
        • Agrawal S.
        • Raghunandan C.
        • et al.
        Association of bacterial vaginosis with adverse fetomaternal outcome in women with spontaneous preterm labor: a prospective cohort study.
        J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012; 25: 64-67
        • Haahr T.
        • Ersbøll A.S.
        • Karlsen M.A.
        • et al.
        Treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery - a clinical recommendation.
        Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2016; 95: 850-860
        • Juliana N.C.A.
        • Suiters M.J.M.
        • Al-Nasiry S.
        • et al.
        The Association between vaginal microbiota dysbiosis, bacterial vaginosis, and aerobic vaginitis, and adverse pregnancy outcomes of women living in sub-saharan africa: a systematic review.
        Front Public Health. 2020; 8: 567885
        • Mulinganya G.
        • De Vulder A.
        • Bisimwa G.
        • et al.
        Prevalence, risk factors and adverse pregnancy outcomes of second trimester bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
        PLoS One. 2021; 16: e0257939
        • Dingens A.S.
        • Fairfortune T.S.
        • Reed S.
        • et al.
        Bacterial vaginosis and adverse outcomes among full-term infants: a cohort study.
        BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016; 16: 278
        • Guise J.M.
        • Mahon S.M.
        • Aickin M.
        • et al.
        Screening for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy.
        Am J Prev Med. 2001; 20: 62-72
        • Owens D.K.
        • Davidson K.W.
        • Krist A.H.
        • et al.
        Screening for Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Persons to Prevent Preterm Delivery: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.
        JAMA. 2020; 323: 1286-1292
        • Brabant G.
        [Bacterial vaginosis and spontaneous preterm birth].
        J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2016; 45 (Vaginose bactérienne et prématurité spontanée): 1247-1260
        • Broache M.
        • Cammarata C.L.
        • Stonebraker E.
        • et al.
        Performance of a vaginal panel assay compared with the clinical diagnosis of vaginitis.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2021; 138: 853-859
        • Gonçalves B.
        • Ferreira C.
        • Alves C.T.
        • et al.
        Vulvovaginal candidiasis: epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.
        Crit Rev Microbiol. 2016; 42: 905-927
        • Denning D.W.
        • Kneale M.
        • Sobel J.D.
        • et al.
        Global burden of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a systematic review.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2018; 18: e339-e347
        • Yano J.
        • Sobel J.D.
        • Nyirjesy P.
        • et al.
        Current patient perspectives of vulvovaginal candidiasis: incidence, symptoms, management and post-treatment outcomes.
        BMC Womens Health. 2019; 19: 48
        • Boyd Tressler A.
        • Markwei M.
        • Fortin C.
        • et al.
        Risks for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by non-albicans candida versus candida albicans.
        J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2021; 30: 1588-1596
        • Wenjin Q.
        • Yifu S.
        Epidemiological study on vaginal Candida glabrata isolated from pregnant women.
        Scand J Infect Dis. 2006; 38: 49-54
        • Roberts C.L.
        • Rickard K.
        • Kotsiou G.
        • et al.
        Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial.
        BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011; 11: 18
        • Konadu D.G.
        • Owusu-Ofori A.
        • Yidana Z.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in the middle belt of Ghana.
        BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019; 19: 341
        • Jafarzadeh L.
        • Ranjbar M.
        • Nazari T.
        • et al.
        Vulvovaginal candidiasis: an overview of mycological, clinical, and immunological aspects.
        J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2022;
        • Cotch M.F.
        • Hillier S.L.
        • Gibbs R.S.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology and outcomes associated with moderate to heavy Candida colonization during pregnancy. Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998; 178: 374-380
        • Zhang Z.
        • Zhang X.
        • Zhou Y.Y.
        • et al.
        The safety of oral fluconazole during the first trimester of pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        BJOG. 2019; 126: 1546-1552
        • Budani M.C.
        • Fensore S.
        • Di Marzio M.
        • et al.
        Maternal use of fluconazole and congenital malformations in the progeny: a meta-analysis of the literature.
        Reprod Toxicol. 2021; 100: 42-51
        • Zisova L.G.
        • Chokoeva A.A.
        • Amaliev G.I.
        • et al.
        Vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnant women and its importance for candida colonization of newborns.
        Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2016; 58: 108-114
        • Goller J.L.
        • De Livera A.M.
        • Fairley C.K.
        • et al.
        Population attributable fraction of pelvic inflammatory disease associated with chlamydia and gonorrhoea: a cross-sectional analysis of Australian sexual health clinic data.
        Sex Transm Infect. 2016; 92: 525-531
        • Sharma H.
        • Tal R.
        • Clark N.A.
        • et al.
        Microbiota and pelvic inflammatory disease.
        Semin Reprod Med. 2014; 32: 43-49
        • Wiesenfeld H.C.
        • Hillier S.L.
        • Meyn L.A.
        • et al.
        Subclinical pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 120: 37-43
        • Trent M.
        • Bass D.
        • Ness R.B.
        • et al.
        Recurrent PID, subsequent STI, and reproductive health outcomes: findings from the PID evaluation and clinical health (PEACH) study.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2011; 38: 879-881
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2019. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta: U.S2021
        • Chen M.J.
        • Kim C.R.
        • Whitehouse K.C.
        • et al.
        Development, updates, and future directions of the World Health Organization Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use.
        Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2017; 136: 113-119
      2. Organization WH. Guidelines for the management of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections.
        Date: 2021
        Date accessed: July 1, 2022
        • Sonkar S.C.
        • Wasnik K.
        • Kumar A.
        • et al.
        Evaluating the utility of syndromic case management for three sexually transmitted infections in women visiting hospitals in Delhi, India.
        Sci Rep. 2017; 7: 1465
        • Peters R.
        • Klausner J.D.
        • de Vos L.
        • et al.
        Aetiological testing compared with syndromic management for sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa: a non-randomised prospective cohort study.
        BJOG. 2021; 128: 1335-1342
        • Wi T.E.
        • Ndowa F.J.
        • Ferreyra C.
        • et al.
        Diagnosing sexually transmitted infections in resource-constrained settings: challenges and ways forward.
        J Int AIDS Soc. 2019; 22: e25343