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- A short history of evidence-based obstetric care.Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2005; 19: 3-14
- Quality of care for pregnant women and newborns—the WHO vision.BJOG An Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2015; 122: 1045-1049
World Health Organization. Basic Documents [Internet]. [Geneva]: WHO; 2020 [49th edition - including amendments adopted up to 31 May 2019; cited 2022 Aug 29]. https://apps.who.int/gb/bd/
World Health Organization. WHO Technical Consultation on Postpartum and Postnatal Care [Internet]. [Geneva]: WHO; 2010 [cited 2022 Jul 16]. (WHO reference number [WHO/MPS/10.03]) https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-MPS-10.03
- ACOG COMMITTEE OPINION No. 736. Optimizing Postpartum Care.Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 131: E140-E150
World Health Organization. WHO Recommendations on Antenatal Care for a Positive Pregnancy Experience [Internet]. [Geneva]: WHO; 2016 [cited 2022 Aug 29] https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241549912
World Health Organization. Trends in Maternal Mortality 2000 to 2017: Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division [Internet]. [Geneva]: WHO; 2019 [cited 2022 Aug 29] https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/327595.
- Early antenatal care visit: a systematic analysis of regional and global levels and trends of coverage from 1990 to 2013.Lancet Glob Heal. 2017; 5: e977-e983
- How effective is antenatal care in preventing maternal mortality and serious morbidity? An overview of the evidence.Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2001; 15: 1-42
- Alternative versus standard packages of antenatal care for low-risk pregnancy.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; 2015https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000934.PUB3
Homer CS, Bohren MA, Wilson A, Vogel JP. Achieving Inclusive and Respectful Maternity Care. In: Flenady V, ed. The Global Library of Women’s Medicine. Vol 3.; 2021. doi:10.3843/GLOWM.411763.
- How women are treated during facility-based childbirth in four countries: a cross-sectional study with labour observations and community-based surveys.Lancet. 2019; 394: 1750-1763
United Nations. Technical Guidance on the Application of a Human Rights-Based Approach to the Implementation of Policies and Programmes to Reduce Preventable Maternal Morbidity and Mortality [Internet]. [Geneva]: OHCHR; 2012 [cited 2022 August 29] (Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights [A/HRC/21/22]) https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/731068?ln=en
World Health Organization. Standards for Improving Quality of Maternal and Newborn Care in Health Facilities [Internet]. [Geneva]: WHO; 2016 [cited 2022 Aug 29] https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241511216
World Health Organization. Continuity and Coordination of Care: A Practice Brief to Support Implementation of the WHO Framework on Integrated People-Centred Health Services [Internet]. [Geneva]. WHO; 2018 [cited 2022 Jul 16] https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/274628.
- Midwife-led continuity models versus other models of care for childbearing women.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016; 2016 (CD004667)
- A literature-based study of patient-centered care and communication in nurse-patient interactions: barriers, facilitators, and the way forward.BMC Nurs. 2021; 20: 1-10
- Interprofessional collaborative practice in obstetrics and midwifery.Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2012; 39: 411-422
- Giving women their own case notes to carry during pregnancy.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; 2015 (CD002856)
- Antenatal interventions for preventing stillbirth, fetal loss and perinatal death: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020; 2020: CD009599
- 731: Group Prenatal Care.Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 131: e104-e108
- Group Prenatal Care: A Financial Perspective.Matern Child Health J. 2016; 20: 1-10
- Group Prenatal Care Compared With Traditional Prenatal Care: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 128: 551-561
- Group versus conventional antenatal care for women.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; (CD007622)
- The contribution of group prenatal care to maternal psychological health outcomes: A systematic review.Women Birth. 2021; 34
- Group prenatal care versus individual prenatal care: a systematic review and meta-analyses.J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2012; 34: 223-229
- A systematic overview of the literature regarding group prenatal care for high-risk pregnant women.BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017; 17: 329-339
- Specialist antenatal clinics for women at high risk of preterm birth: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative research.BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017; 17https://doi.org/10.1186/S12884-017-1232-9
- Impact of group antenatal care (G-ANC) versus individual antenatal care (ANC) on quality of care, ANC attendance and facility-based delivery: A pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial in Kenya and Nigeria.PLoS One. 2019; 14https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0222177
- Enhanced Antenatal Care: Combining one-to-one and group Antenatal Care models to increase childbirth education and address childbirth fear.Women and Birth. 2021; 34: 381-388
Silver R (Bob) M, Shea A. Principles of Screening and Disease Prevention in Antenatal Care. In: Flenady V, ed. The Global Library of Women’s Medicine. Vol 3.; 2021. doi:10.3843/GLOWM.414613.
- Quality statement 1: Services – access to antenatal care | Antenatal care | Quality standards | NICE.(Available at:)Accessed April 11, 2022)
World Health Organization. WHO Antenatal Care Randomized Trial: Manual for the Implementation of the New Model [Internet]. [Geneva]: WHO; 2002 [cited 2022 Aug 29] (WHO Programme to Map Best Reproductive Health Practices [WHO/RHR/01.30]) https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/42513/W?sequence=1.
- Antenatal care packages with reduced visits and perinatal mortality: a secondary analysis of the WHO Antenatal Care Trial.Reprod Health. 2013; 10https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4755-10-19
- Factors associated with the timing of antenatal clinic attendance among first-time mothers in rural southern Ghana.BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020; 20https://doi.org/10.1186/S12884-020-2738-0
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Antenatal Care [Internet]. [London]: NICE; 2021 [cited 2022 Jul 16]. (NICE guideline [NG201]). https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng201.
- Antenatal care for healthy pregnant women: a mapping of interventions from existing guidelines to inform the development of new WHO guidance on antenatal care.BJOG. 2016; 123: 519-528
- Preeclampsia Screening: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.JAMA. 2017; 317: 1668-1683
- Methods for Estimating the Due Date.Obstet Gynecol. 2017; 129: E150-E154
- Systematic review of first-trimester ultrasound screening for detection of fetal structural anomalies and factors that affect screening performance.Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2017; 50: 429-441
- Ultrasound for fetal assessment in early pregnancy.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; 2015https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007058.PUB3
- Trends and Determinants of Prescription Drug Use during Pregnancy and Postpartum in British Columbia, 2002–2011: A Population-Based Cohort Study.PLoS One. 2015; 10: e0128312
- Improving Safe Use of Medications During Pregnancy: The Roles of Patients, Physicians, and Pharmacists.Qual Health Res. 2017; 27: 2071
- Maternal immunization.Clin Infect Dis. 2014; 59: 560-568
- Mortality from tetanus between 1990 and 2015: findings from the global burden of disease study 2015.BMC Public Health. 2017; 17: 1-17
- Guidelines for Vaccinating Pregnant Women.(Available at:)https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pregnancy/hcp-toolkit/guidelines.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fvaccines%2Fpregnancy%2Fhcp%2Fguidelines.html(Accessed May 21, 2022)
- Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy | ACOG.(Available at:)https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2018/04/influenza-vaccination-during-pregnancy(Accessed April 11, 2022)
- Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2021-22 Influenza Season.MMWR Recomm Rep Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Recomm Rep. 2021; 70: 1-32
- Questions and Answers: COVID-19 vaccines and pregnancy.(Available at:)Accessed May 21, 2022)
- 741: Maternal Immunization.Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 131: E214-E217
- 86: Viral hepatitis in pregnancy.Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 110: 941-955
- Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule, United States, 2019.Ann Intern Med. 2019; 170: 182-192
- Immunization in pregnancy and breastfeeding: Canadian Immunization Guide - Canada.ca.(Available at:)https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/healthy-living/canadian-immunization-guide-part-3-vaccination-specific-populations/page-4-immunization-pregnancy-breastfeeding.html(Accessed April 11, 2022)
- ACIP General Best Practice Guidelines for Immunization | CDC.(Available at:)Accessed May 21, 2022)
- Vaccines are not associated with autism: an evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies.Vaccine. 2014; 32: 3623-3629
- Global burden of antenatal depression and its association with adverse birth outcomes: an umbrella review.BMC Public Heal. 2020; 20: 1-16
- Women’s Experiences of Seeking and Receiving Psychological and Psychosocial Interventions for Postpartum Depression: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of the Qualitative Literature.J Midwifery Womens Health. 2017; 62: 723-736
- Identifying the women at risk of antenatal anxiety and depression: A systematic review.J Affect Disord. 2016; 191: 62-77
- Trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the first 12 months postpartum and child externalizing and internalizing behavior at three years.PLoS One. 2018; 13https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0195365
- 757: Screening for Perinatal Depression.Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 132: E208-E212
- Marcé International Society position statement on psychosocial assessment and depression screening in perinatal women.Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014; 28: 179-187
- Validated tools to identify common mental disorders in the perinatal period: A systematic review of systematic reviews.J Affect Disord. 2022; 298: 634-643
- Screening for Fetal Chromosomal Abnormalities: ACOG Practice Bulletin, Number 226.Obstet Gynecol. 2020; 136: e48-e69
- Committee Opinion No. 690: Carrier Screening in the Age of Genomic Medicine.Obstet Gynecol. 2017; 129: e35-e40
- No. 223-Content of a Complete Routine Second Trimester Obstetrical Ultrasound Examination and Report.J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2017; 39: e144-e149
- No. 352-Technical Update: The Role of Early Comprehensive Fetal Anatomy Ultrasound Examination.J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2017; 39: 1203-1211
- Routine ultrasound in late pregnancy (after 24 weeks’ gestation).Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; 2015: CD001451
- Update on Prenatal Care - American Family Physician.(Available at:)Accessed April 11, 2022)
- ACOG Committee Opinion Number 752 Prenatal and Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing.Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 132: E138-E142
- Screening for HIV Infection in Pregnant Women: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.JAMA. 2019; 321: 2349-2360
- 518: Intimate partner violence.Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 119: 412-417
- 554: reproductive and sexual coercion.Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 121: 411-415
- 498: Adult manifestations of childhood sexual abuse.Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 118: 392-395
- Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021.MMWR Recomm Rep Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Recomm Rep. 2021; 70: 1-187
- Birth Plans: What Matters for Birth Experience Satisfaction.Birth. 2016; 43: 144-150
- Predictors of Optimal Antenatal Care Service Utilization Among Adolescents and Adult Women in Bangladesh.Heal Serv Res Manag Epidemiol. 2018; 5 (233339281878172)
- The relationship between social support and mental health problems during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Reprod Heal. 2021; 18: 1-23
- The Impact of Social Support and Pregnancy on Subjective Well-Being: A Systematic Review.Front Psychol. 2021; 12https://doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2021
- Mothers’ accounts of the impact on emotional wellbeing of organised peer support in pregnancy and early parenthood: A qualitative study.BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017; 17: 1-14
World Health Organization. WHO Recommendations on Maternal and Newborn Care for a Positive Postnatal Experience [Internet]. [Geneva]: WHO; 2022 [Cited 2022 August 29] https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240045989.
- Inequities in postnatal care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Bull World Health Organ. 2015; 93: 259
- Assessing coverage of interventions for reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health and nutrition.BMJ. 2020; 368https://doi.org/10.1136/BMJ.L6915
- New global WHO postnatal guidance is welcome but misses the long-term perspective.Lancet. 2022; 0https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00616-X
- Postpartum care content and delivery throughout the African continent: An integrative review.Midwifery. 2021; 97https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MIDW.2021.102976
- Scoping review of maternal and newborn health interventions and programmes in Nigeria.BMJ Open. 2022; 12: e054784
- WHO technical consultation on postpartum and postnatal care.Published online. 2010; : 57
- National, regional, and global levels and trends in neonatal mortality between 1990 and 2017, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis.Lancet Glob Heal. 2019; 7: e710-e720
- The frequency of maternal morbidity: A systematic review of systematic reviews.Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2018; 141: 20-38
- Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.Lancet. 2014; 384: 980-1004
- What matters to women in the postnatal period: A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.PLoS One. 2020; 15https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0231415
- Essential newborn care. Newborn Health.(Available at:)https://www.who.int/teams/maternal-newborn-child-adolescent-health-and-ageing/newborn-health/essential-newborn-care(Accessed July 13, 2022)
- Neonatal care practices in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data.J Health Popul Nutr. 2018; 37: 1-12
- The first 2 h after birth: prevalence and factors associated with neonatal care practices from a multicountry, facility-based, observational study.Lancet Glob Heal. 2021; 9: e72-e80
- A pictorial review of postpartum complications.Radiographics. 2020; 40: 2117-2141
- Incidence of perineal pain and dyspareunia following spontaneous vaginal birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Int Urogynecol J. 2019; 30: 853-868
- Treatments for breast engorgement during lactation.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020; 2020 (SVG)
- Epidemiology of urinary incontinence (UI) and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and anal incontinence (AI).in: Abrams P. Cardozo L. Wagg A. Incontinence : 6th international consultation on incontinence. International Continence Society, 2017: 141
- Prevalence and determinants of common perinatal mental disorders in women in low- and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review.Bull World Health Organ. 2012; 90: 139-149
- Barriers to accessing mental health services for women with perinatal mental illness: systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies in the UK.BMJ Open. 2019; 9: e024803
World Health Organization. Guideline: Updates on HIV and Infant Feeding: The Duration of Breastfeeding, and Support from Health Services to Improve Feeding Practices among Mothers Living with HIV [Internet]. [Geneva]: WHO; 2016 [cited 2022 Aug 29].
World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund. Frequently Asked Questions: Protecting, Promoting, and Supporting Breastfeeding in Facilities Providing Maternity and Newborn Services: The Revised Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative 2018 [Internet]. [Geneva]: WHO; 2020 [cited 2022 Aug 29] https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241513807
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) | Breastfeeding | CDC.(Available at:)https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/maternal-or-infant-illnesses/hiv.html(Accessed May 22, 2022)
- Breastfeeding in a Global Context: Epidemiology, Impact, and Future Directions.Clin Ther. 2022; 44: 228-244
- Breastfeeding and the Benefits of Lactation for Women’s Health.Rev Bras Ginecol e Obs/RBGO Gynecol Obstet. 2018; 40: 354-359
- Breastfeeding Beyond 12 Months: Is There Evidence for Health Impacts?.Annu Rev Nutr. 2021; 41: 283-308
- Benefits of breastfeeding.N S W Public Health Bull. 2005; 16: 42
- Infant feeding guidelines: Updating the evidence 2022.Breastfeed Rev. 2022; 30: 19-26
- Physiological weight loss in the breastfed neonate: a systematic review.Open Med. 2008; 2: e99
Pereyra-Elías R, Quigley MA, Carson C. To what extent does confounding explain the association between breastfeeding duration and cognitive development up to age 14? Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Kalk EK, ed. PLoS One. 2022;17(5):e0267326. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0267326.
World Health Organization. Improving Early Childhood Development: WHO Guideline [Internet]. [Geneva]: WHO; 2020 [cited 2022 Aug 29] https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331306/9789240002098-eng.pdf
- Massage for promoting mental and physical health in typically developing infants under the age of six months.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 2013 (CD005038)
World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use [Internet]. [Geneva]: WHO; 2015 [5th edition; cited 2022 Aug 29] https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241549158
- Early postnatal discharge from hospital for healthy mothers and term infants.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021; : 2021
- Predictors of Readiness for Hospital Discharge After Birth: Building Evidence for Practice.Worldviews Evidence-based Nurs. 2017; 14: 118-127
- Exploring maternal postnatal newborn care postnatal discharge education in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Barriers, facilitators and opportunities.Midwifery. 2019; 77: 137-143
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- Involving men to improve maternal and newborn health: A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions.PLoS One. 2018; 13https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0191620
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Karami M, Chaleshgar M, Salari N, Akbari H, Mohammadi M. Global Prevalence of Anemia in Pregnant Women: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Matern Child Health J. 2022;26(7):1473-1487. doi:10.1007/S10995-022-03450-1/TABLES/2.
Smolina K, Hanley GE, Mintzes B, Oberlander TF, Morgan S. Trends and Determinants of Prescription Drug Use during Pregnancy and Postpartum in British Columbia, 2002-2011: A Population-Based Cohort Study. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0128312. doi:10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0128312.
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Fortinguerra F, Belleudi V, Poggi FR, et al. Medication prescriptions before, during and after pregnancy in Italy: a population-based study. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2021;57(3):249-258. doi:10.4415/ANN_21_03_09
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Ayele Y, Mekuria AN, Tola A, Mishore KM, Geleto FB. Prescription drugs use during pregnancy in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. SAGE open Med. 2020;8:205031212093547. doi:10.1177/2050312120935471
Smith G. A critical review of the Cochrane meta-analysis of routine late-pregnancy ultrasound. BJOG An Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2021;128(2):207-213. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.16386.